Ottoman Empire

Given the last few centuries, who can blame the Poles for praying for their country?

Sixteenth-century England did have links with the Ottoman Empire. But let’s not overstate their importance

The Middle East is more polarised along religious lines than ever before. Yet recent history shows the region can return to the enlightened tolerance it once enjoyed

A new book describes why Turkey is right to have an uneasy conscience over its treatment of the Armenians

That certain Muslims want to hold segregated meetings in universities should not blind us to a few important considerations

BBC series explores how the Suleiman the Magnificent submitted Sharia law to his own will

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk was right to make a sharp break with Turkey’s imperial past

As in China, the forces of conservatism were too great